ANALISIS DE ORINA ATLAS COLOR [LAURINE GRAFF SISTER] on Amazon. com. *FREE* shipping on qualifying offers. Get this from a library! Graff: análisis de orina y de los líquidos corporales. [Lillian A Mundt; Laurine Graff; Kristy Shanahan]. Analisis de Orina Graff – Ebook download as PDF File .pdf) or read book online. Analisis de orina.

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Bacteria, lymphocytes and epithelial cells from the genitourinary tract do not contain esterases.

Urine test strip

Poorly stored samples can yield false negative results as the urobilinogen suffers photo oxidation to urobilin that does not react. Microscopic examination of the urinary sediment shows intact red blood cells, but free hemoglobin produced either by hemolytic disorders or lysis of red blood cells is not detected. Two colour charts are provided that correspond to the reactions that occur with hemoglobinuria, myoglobinuria and hematuria RBCs.

Retrieved March 13, The presence of strong oxidising agents or formaldehyde can cause false positives.

There are strips which serve different purposes, such as qualitative strips that only determine if the sample is positive or negative, or there are semi-quantitative ones that in addition to providing a positive or negative reaction also provide an estimation of a quantitative result, in the latter the colour reactions are approximately proportional to the oria of the analissis being tested for in the sample.

Self-monitoring for frequent urinary tract infections is a popular example as sufferers monitor their own urine on a daily basis and discuss the results with their health professional.

Blood present in large quantities can be detected visually.

Graff Sister Analisis De Orina Atlas | Sabri Audisio –

The nitrite test is not particularly reliable and negative results in the presence of clinical symptoms are not uncommon, meaning that orin test should not be taken as conclusive. Practical, focused, and reader friendly, this popular text teaches the theoretical and practical knowledge every clinical laboratory scientist needs to handle and analyze non-blood body fluids, and to keep them graf their laboratory safe from infectious agents.


In order to differentiate pH in this wide range it is common to use a double indicator system comprising methyl red and bromothymol blue. Highly pigmented urine and contamination of the container with quaternary ammonium compounds, detergents and antiseptics also oina false-positive readings. Non-pathological hematuria can be observed after strenuous exercise and during menstruation. Therefore, sediments containing bacteria should be checked closely for the presence of red blood cells.

The haemoglobin that is released after the mononuclear phagocyte system located in the liver and spleen withdraws old red blood cells from circulation is degraded into its components; irondde and protein. They can measure calciumblood, glucose, bilirubin, urobilinogen, ketones, leukocytes, creatininemicroalbuminpH, ascorbic acid and protein. The test can give false positives if strong oxidant or peroxide residues are present on the laboratory material used for the analysis.

Early diagnosis allows appropriate therapeutic measures to be instituted in orinw time, avoiding consequential damage and further infections. Reagent strip manufacturers incorporate peroxide, and tetramethylbenzidine, into the blood testing area.

This type of analysis is very common in the control and monitoring of diabetic patients. The normal number of red blood cells in urine should not usually exceed 3 per high power field. It provides significantly enhanced coverage of body fluids, amniotic fluid, feces, CSF, and metabolic diseases, particularly in the areas of anatomy and physiology, function, and recent advances in testing.

In addition some substances such as ascorbic acid will compete with the Greiss reaction giving unrepresentatively low readings. Elevated concentrations of ketones are not generally found in urine, as all these substances are completely metabolized, producing energy, carbon dioxide and water. Self-monitoring with urine test strips under the guidance of a health professional is an effective method for monitoring the disease state.

Análisis de orina: atlas color

Of the routine chemical tests performed on urine, the most indicative of renal disease is the protein determination. This allows the escape of conjugated bilirubin into the circulation as occurs in hepatitis and hepatic cirrhosis. Retrieved 30 March During routine screening, if a positive test for leukocytes, blood, protein, nitrite, and a pH greater than 7 is identified, the urine sediment be microscopically analysed to further pinpoint a diagnosis.


Uses authors parameter CS1 maint: The test does not measure beta-hydroxybutyric acid and it is only weakly sensitive to acetone when glycine is added to the reaction. In this reaction the acetoacetic acid in an alkali medium reacts with the sodium nitroprusside producing a magenta coloured complex: The reaction is specific for glucose, as occurs in all enzymatic reactions, but it can provide some false positive results due to the presence of traces of strong oxidising agents or peroxide from disinfectants used on laboratory instruments.

The hemoglobin precipitates out with the ammonia sulphate but not the myoglobin. Infections caused by TrichomonasChlamydia and yeasts produce leukocyturia without bacteriuria. In the range 5 to 9 the strips show colours that change from orange at pH 5, passing through yellow and green to dark blue at pH 9. Hemoglobinuria can be caused by hemolytic anaemia, blood transfusions, extensive burnsthe bite of the recluse spider Loxoscelesinfections and strenuous exercise.

Intestinal bacteria reduce the bilirubin to urobilinogenwhich is later oxidised and either excreted with the faeces as stercobilin or in the urine as urobilin. The colours vary from dark blue with a reading of 1. Under normal conditions nearly all the glucose removed in the glomerulus is reabsorbed in the proximal convoluted tubule.

It is normal to find up to 3 occasionally 5 leukocytes per high power field 40X in a urine sample, with women having slightly higher results owing to vaginal contamination.

Traditional reagent strip testing for protein uses the principle of the protein error of indicators to produce a visible colorimetric reaction. Part of the urobilinogen is reabsorbed in the intestine then circulated in the blood to the liver where it is excreted.

Retrieved February 09,from Roche Diagnostics. The urine test strip reaction is based on the action of leukocyte esterase in catalysing the hydrolysis of an ester of indolecarboxylic acid.