(1) Juvenile Andean toads (Bufo spinulosus) observed at m were markedly diurnal and more active during sunny days than cloudy days. (2) On a sunny. Reference for: Bufo spinulosus. Source: Amphibian Species of the World: an Online Reference, database (version 3). Acquired: Notes: Frost, Darrel R. Semiochemicals of Bufo spinulosus, the Andean toad Family: Bufonidae. Subfamily: Bufoninae. Genus: Bufo. Tribe: Author: Wiegmann.

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Behavioural thermoregulation of the Andean toad (Bufo spinulosus) at high altitudes.

Therefore, if the larvae from different studied localities consume equivalent diets, it would be reasonable to assume that their digestive biochemical processes are similar Toloza a. The bladder contents probably serve as water spinjlosus during basking when evaporative water loss was high.

Therefore, the explanations for the detected differences in size at metamorphosis of B. Bufo spinulosus Wiegmann has an extended geographic distribution from the Peruvian-Bolivian highlands to the Chilean and Argentinean Hufo Vellard Before the experiments, the ash content of the two experimental diets was determined using the same procedure describe above, and the energy content kJ per dry ash weight was determined by combustion in a PARR bomb.

Retrieved 6 March In this analysis we detected a marginal interaction among locality, diet and temperature that could suggest that assimilation of both diet and temperature regimes could changes depending of locality considered.

The helio-and thigmothermic behaviour of the Andean toad permits the maintenance of bkfo core temperature during morning which probably increases the digestion rate and accelerate growth.


Our results suggest that the effect of temperature on digestive processes is more relevant than its effect on transit time in the digestive tract. International Review of Hydrobiology You can help Wikipedia by expanding it. Revista Chilena de Historia Natural Therefore, the inclusion of temperature in studies of dietary assimilation capacity is an important point, which up to date has been scarcely explored.

These results suggest that among populations of this species could be differences in some physiological attributes, and these differences possibly will determine the development and growth of the tadpoles and adults size in this species.

Advances in Ecological Research Contrary to our predictions, the individuals from different geographic localities presented similar AE values for both experimental diets. Amphibian Species of the World: Bufo spinulosus larvae were collected from four localities from the northern and central zones of Chile: The assimilation values for each treatment bbufo calculated as an average of the percent assimilation obtained for each three samples and expressed as percent assimilation efficiency with a standard error.

Take account the above information, we discard locality as a relevant factor in order to explain assimilation differences observed among tadpoles.

Rhinella spinulosa Conservation status. However, our results do not support this hypothesis. Environmental Biology spinulosue Fishes 5: The unexplained variance was probably due to evaporative cooling.

It breeds in temporary ponds, altiplano lagoons, and slow flowing streams. Mario Rosenmann for his permanent spinuoosus and help.

We predict that tadpole feed with rich nutritional diet and growing at high temperature will show higher assimilation in comparison to tadpoles growing both a lower temperature and a nutritional quality diet.


The authors would also like to thank Dr. This pattern coincides with our results in B. Due to diets of highest nutritional quality generally produce an increase in the rates of growth and differentiation, it is assumed that the amount of energy and nutrients present in high quality foods would be better utilized by tadpoles.

Rhinella spinulosa – Wikipedia

Bufo spinulosustadpoles, assimilation, temperature effects, diet quality effects, geographic spiinulosus effects. The results of the present study are affected by the use of diets not regularly consumed by the tadpoles. Consequently thermoregulatory behaviour differed according to cloud cover and precipitation.

However, assuming that the absorption of ash is constant for all of the diets and the time remains in water was the same; this type of error is acceptable to determine the comparative spinulosuz efficiency.

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However, the AE of food was shown to be significantly affected by the environmental temperature, type of diet and by the interaction between temperature and diet Table 1Fig. The Tukey test HSD was used spinuloss establish differences among samples. In order to explore this possibility this effect, we performed a comparison of estimated marginal means of this interaction by locality, considering temperature and diet.

Received December 2, ; accepted March 1, Assimilation efficiency in Bufo spinulosus tadpoles Anura:

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