Fiber-wireless (FiWi) access networks: Challenges and opportunities, Article. orig-research. Bibliometrics Data Bibliometrics. · Citation. This article highlights key enabling optical as well as wireless technologies and explains Fiber-wireless (FiWi) access networks: Challenges and opportunities. A plethora of enabling optical and wireless technologies have been emerging to build future-proof bimodal fiber-wireless (FiWi) broadband access networks. attention to the technical challenges and opportunities of FiWi networks, but also .
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Navid Ghazisaidi, PhD – Google Scholar Citations
Each RN consists of a protection unit and a bidirectional wavelength add-drop multiplexer based on a multilayer dielectric interference filter. Optical access networks provide transparency against data rate and signal format, which eased carriers worldwide into deploying future-proof PON outside plants that can be flexibly upgraded as new technologies mature or new standards evolve [ 7 ].
However, this situation is changing rapidly. This not only provides more time for fiber-wirelesa and personal activities for corporate and our own personal benefit but also helps reduce fuel consumption and protect the environment; issues that are becoming increasingly important in our lives.
All of the discussed wireless routing algorithms aim at finding the optimal path through a wireless mesh front-end by meeting one or more objectives.
Fiber-wireless (FiWi) access networks: Challenges and opportunities
Toward this goal, fiber together with next-generation wireless broadband technologies will play an increasingly vital role in future broadband access networks. In addition, DARA performs admission control, where a packet is admitted into the wireless mesh only if the predicted delay along the computed path is below a predetermined threshold. Whenever the wireless link conditions change, a WiMAX subscriber station sends a bandwidth request message to its associated ODU to update its service requirements.
Arguing that due to its unique properties optical fiber is likely to entirely replace copper wires in the near-to midterm, we will elaborate on the final frontier of optical networks, namely, the convergence with their wireless counterparts. The level of provided quality-of-service QoS largely depends on the performance of the implemented routing and resource management algorithms, including bandwidth allocation and channel assignment algorithms with absolute or relative QoS assurances.
Unlike DARA, each mesh router maintains a risk list to keep track of failures. Femtocellswhich need to be more autonomous and self-adaptive than traditional small cellsare now widely deployed as small, inexpensive, and low-power BSs. In this section, we review a variety of proposed routing algorithms that aim at optimizing the network performance in terms of delay, throughput, packet loss, load balancing, and other important metrics such as path availability and power consumption.
In the downstream direction, data packets are routed from the CO to the wireless gateways through the optical backhaul and are then forwarded to the MCNs by wireless mesh routers. The optimal placement of ONUs is an important design objective of FiWi networks due to the fact that the cost of laying optical fiber is significantly higher than that of devices attached to either end of the optical fiber, for example, OLT.
This trend is expected to become even more pronounced over the next couple of decades. It is important to note that there is a difference between OWI and free-space optical wireless OW communications.
FiWi research focuses on the physical PHYMAC, and network layers with the goal to develop and investigate low-cost enabling FiWi technologies as well as layer-2 and layer-3 protocols and algorithms. The greedy algorithm starts with a given distribution of wireless end-users, which might be randomly or deterministically chosen, and consists of two phases. After an ONU is deregistered, the incoming traffic to that ONU is temporarily stored at the network terminal until the reregistration is achieved.
Toward this end, in the central hub of the FiWi network a network terminal continually monitors the buffer depth of each OLT for the downstream traffic. Similarly, to alleviate the bandwidth bottleneck of wireless mesh front-end fiber-wirelesw, future FiWi access networks are expected to be based on next-generation IEEE Current requirements for CPRI are very demanding in terms of maximum line rate 9.
According to recent market data by ABI Research, the number of fixed broadband subscribers will rise to million by the end ofof which million will subscribe to services delivered via fiber. Section 2 describes related research topics and defines FiWi access networks as a new research area. Each receiving ONU determines to discard or forward the traffic according to the location of the destination mesh client.
The so-called grid reconfigurable optical-wireless network GROW-Net is a scalable municipal FiWi network architecture that adapts the street layout in a city and makes use of available dark fibers readily available in urban areas [ 3132 ]. The simulation and experimental work in [ 68 ] has shed some light on the tradeoff between energy tiber-wireless and QoS support in FiWi access networks.
In other words, when all the traffic goes to the Internet, the throughput of FiWi networks is the same accesz that of traditional WMNs. OW communications links operate at much higher carrier frequencies than their RF counterparts. This paper has citations. To solve this optimization problem, the authors applied a tabu search based heuristic, a widely used metaheuristic algorithm for solving combinatorial problems.
Toward this end, in the remainder of this paper we will first elaborate on emerging trends and open challenges for FiWi networking research. Fiber-wireles power grids represent one of the most important critical infrastructures of our society.