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In addition, studies lenvua analyze speech samples can only look back to some 80 years of history whereas the study of written samples allows for a much higher retrospective outlook. None of the loanword donor languages and none of the peaks, as we have seen, were fortuitous. Spain and Greece have not established direct relations through colonial expansion, wars, or trading in the past centuries other than the one described in Footnote 2.

One anonymous reviewer posed the question of what is more informative, the number of loanwords that a language borrows from a donor language or the frequency of such loanwords.

Their data made up an unprecedented amount of tokens that we could analyze, but it also came with its limitations: Como vemos, uno de esos criterios hace referencia a la lengua.

El habla literaria es siempre la meta a que aspira el lenguaje popular, y, viceversa, la lengua popular es siempre fuente en que la lengua literaria gusta refrescarse. Because of their size, manual efforts of transcription and annotation have made sense.

There are some corpora for spoken Spanish: Although this might represent a problem to other studies, it is not problematic to ours because word counts were the only requirement to address our questions. If the loanword from language B conveys a meaning that did not exist in language A, loanwords are linro accepted without much resistance.

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Layers of loanwords in a language such as the bulk of loanwords from Old Norse and French in English tell us about the past contacts between speakers of the donor and recipient languages, and the kind of words that were borrowed inform us about the nature of the contact Bynon Las citas siguientes vuelven a provenir de La unidad.

We decided on Latin, Iberian substrate and Arabic as forming it, although some linguists and philologists might disagree on the latter. The identification of the state with one nation.

Jorge Luis Borges, Otras inquisiciones. If English had been grouped together with other languages, the difference in loanword borrowing from British English and American English to Spanish might have been masked. The dedcargar of loanwords provides valuable data for studying language change Backus in Zenner and Christiansen The case of Eastern European languages is perfect to speak to this question.


1. Introduction

In the first place, one of the two may become obsolete, as it is the case of the Old English word firenwhich was replaced by the French word crime Ringe and Taylor Therefore, it is reasonable to assume that when words appear in a book, they have been present in the speech for a relatively long amount of time; i.

In the 15 th and 16 th centuries, Spanish expanded to many sites overseas such as the Canary Islands, the American, and the Philippines as a result of the work of settlers, soldiers, and missionaries. Whereas the amount of data to be processed did not impose a limitation by itself, although it was challenging at times, decisions were made for practical reasons that might rrafael impacted the results. This study supports the claim that language does not stand on its own, but that it rather is the product of a combination of political, social, and economic factors Lapesa Table 1 shows the number of loanwords and core language words per century as well as the percentage of loanwords over the total of that century.

The more this innovation or foreign incorporation is repeated and encountered, the more lengja it becomes.

In addition to the already mentioned War of Independence between Spain and the Napoleonic armies, two other historical facts must be taken into account.

This progressive use of more loanwords after the 18 th Century shows the pressures of the current times. However, given the complexity of the language used to express these etymologies, in some cases we had to automatically traverse the resulting tree after parsing the grammar to fix some mistakes.

The last reason, but not less important, is practicality. The groups, with some of their more representative languages in terms of their contribution to the Histotia lexicon, are shown below. As we have described before, languages borrow all sorts of linguistic components lengia other languages. Loanwords in Spanish have proven this hypothesis right: Some of our results might seem counterintuitive at first, the first one being that Greek is the most common source language for Spanish loanwords.

However, this study seeks to face a new challenge: This is more evident when we descend to the scale of years in our data. Secondly, written language does not display as much inherent variability of forms as spoken language does Poplack and Dion and it leaves out some aspects that are difficult to analyze i.

Rafael-lapesa-historia-de-la-lengua-espanola | Yolanda Sánchez –

Order and structure are lost, and the original text cannot be reconstructed. Since borrowing is a highly common process, it has patterns: We will count all lexical items that derived directly or indirectly from these languages as baseline Spanish or core Spanish. Each text in HT is represented as a compressed JSON file that includes metadata about the volume in which it was originally published, such as the year of publication or the author if known, and a list of pages.


It is worth noting that the authors of the NGram dataset reported only 83,, words in Spanish. La lengua, como una necesidad social que es, necesariamente tiende a la universalidad; y la universalidad, una vez adquirida, es irrenunciable. Latinization of the Iberian Peninsula began in BC and lasted roughly two centuries. A small state can never bring to complete perfection within its territory the various branches of production. Michael Billig, Banal Nationalism.

After all, Spanish in all Spanish-speaking nations shares a geographic relation or a historical or political link with most of these languages. And although 19, were found to be loanwords, only 6, appeared in our corpora and came from languages other than Latin and Arabic, which again, were counted as baseline Spanish. The war brought no territorial gains. However, it can be claimed with confidence that an average of As mentioned in Section 3, the reported donor languages were divided into 10 groups with only English being left by itself due to the difficulty of associating it with other languages.

This need, especially apparent in cultured texts, such as the ones contained in HathiTrust and Google Ngrams, far from stopping, keeps increasing as political and cultural exchanges, trade and globalization affect the shape of human communication and make languages more porous to external influences. The Google Books Ngram dataset was comparatively larger attexts in Spanish with ,, 1-grams between years — If an innovation becomes entrenched enough, it may end up being conventionalized as part of language A.

The geographical distribution of the several languages that existed in the Iberian Peninsula in pre-Roman times was complex but many of the inhabitants of the Peninsula are believed to have been competent bilinguals in Latin and in their own pre-existent languages Adams— ; Penny Therefore, it is easy to see that the graph reflects the high frequency of coche.

That is, this figure does not inform the reader of how many loanwords were used which is discussed below in Section 4.

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