FRED DONNER MUHAMMAD AND THE BELIEVERS PDF

Aug 3, Muhammad and the Believers: At the Origins of Islam. By Fred IN HIS LATEST BOOK, Fred Donner offers a provocative and comprehensive. Muhammad and the Believers has ratings and 33 reviews. Oldroses said: Back in Fred Donner is as captivating an author as he is a lecturer. This book is . Donner, Fred M. Muhammad and the Believers: At the Origins of Islam. Cambridge, MA, and London: Belknap Press of Harvard University Press, xviii+

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Sasanian forces crossed northern Syria to the Mediter- ranean coast, seized Antioch, and used this as a base to push into Anatolia to the north and Syria to the south. They are instructed not to come to prayers while intoxicated Q.

As dis- cussed earlier, Yathrib had long been torn by political strife between the Aws and the Khazraj, rival clans of its dominant tribe, the Banu Qayla. Central Asia, even far beyond the Sasanian borders. The conviction that Muslims constituted a separate thd community, utterly distinct from Christians and Jews, emerged a century later, when the leaders of the Believers’ movement decided that only those believera saw the Qur’an as the final revelation of the One God and Muhammad as the final prophet, qualified as Believers.

This nascent movement included Jews and Christians along with newly converted polytheists. Ia sengaja memakai istilah Umat Beriman Believers untuk menunjukkan bahwa pada mula-mula memang ia sebuah gerakan, bukan agama.

Another dimension of the fged mood of the Byzantine do- mains in the sixth century, and one not unrelated to asceticism, was I ‘he N car luisl on the Eve of Islam 15 SI Simeon. Other verses, such as Q. The ridda campaigns were donne important to the fledgling state in Medina for another reason: The result was dobner by the sixth century, the Christians ol the Near East had coalesced into several well-defined communi- ties, each with its own version of the faith.

Donner makes it clear in the introduction that this is a primer for readers interested first, obviously, in the history of Islam, and second, and more importantly, in staking out a position between traditional histories and the strand of scholarship that tosses traditional narratives out as completely unreliable.

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The Sasanians, who had extensive frred mercial contacts of their own in the Indian Ocean basin and who may have maintained commercial colonies in India, were keen to monopolize the flow of eastern luxury goods into Byzantine territory in order to levy thd on them.

The reasons for this petty plundering are simple. Donner Muhammad and the Believers: They are to the historian of this period what the fleeting glimpses of a few fixed stars are to the navi- gator attempting to make his or her way under cloudy skies: Much of Arabia consists of sandy or, more com- monly, rocky desert— the main exceptions being the Yemen in the Arabian deep south and parts of Oman in the southeast, which are blessed with some moisture from the Indian Ocean and water from mountain springs.

Muhammad and the Believers — Fred M. Donner | Harvard University Press

Shortly thereafter, in C. The account is readable, for the most part, although I did get bogged down in the last few chapters. Other tribes had, in earlier centu- ries, played the same role. They had occupied sev- eral key towns as far north as Hims Emesaand were poised to oc- cupy the rest of the region without major resistance.

The substance of what was sent down is described variously as the Quran Q.

Muhammad and the Believers

But the lack of evidence of believeds in places most excavated, chiefly Syria, reveal no evidence of a mass conquest. An excellent historical review of what really happened during the first hundred years after the Prophet.

Yazdagird and whatever troops remained loyal to him fled eastward through the Zagros into the Ira- nian plateau, never to return. The Romans fled, leaving behind the patriarch Bryrdn, whom the tayyaye killed. On the other hand, m Egypt, Syria, and Armenia most Christians, particularly in the countryside, were monophysite, that is, they belonged to one of sev- eral churches that considered Christ to have had only a single na- ture that was simultaneously fref and human.

It was not enough for the Believers to be merely pious in their own lives and complacent about the world; they were also to strive actively to confront, and if possible to root out, impiety in the world around them.

Muhammad also launched, around this time, dpnner raids on still-unsubdued nomadic tribes and sent several raids to rhe north. The author advocates a more ecumenical theory of origins, and I am not knowledgeable enough to evaluate the validity of that premise, but it is intriguing nonetheless.

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Moreover, they always thought of themselves as the rightful rulers of the donned em- pire in its full extent.

Muhammad and the Believers: At the Origins of Islam

The sheer size of the empire had caused the emperor Dio- cletian to create a system of two coordinate emperors, one in the west and one in the east— so that each could better con- trol his vonner half of the empire, suppressing efficiently any uprisings or unrest in his domain and warding off any invasions from the outside.

It manifested itself in periodic diplomatic maneuvering be- tween the two powers in an attempt to secure political allegiance and cultural and economic advantage in those border areas that the empires did not already rule directly or did not wish to bother to rule directly, such as Arabia. Sep 30, Robert rated it really liked it Shelves: But closer examination of the uses of the word hijra in the Qur’an and, as we shall see, in some later sources as well suggests that hijra had a broader range of meanings.

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He therefore organized a large armed force one report says it numbered ten thousand, including perhaps two thousand nomadic allies and marched on Mecca. Not what Muslims would say about the Islamic testimony!

This article is also available for rental through DeepDyve. The Byzantines, for example, maintained a customs station on the island of Iotabe in the straits of Tiran at the mouth of the Gulf of Aqabaand a few stray reports hint that both the Byzantines and the Sasanians attempted, and perhaps succeeded, in establishing special ties with local leaders to collect taxes in Yathrib or Mecca on gelievers eve of Islam in an effort to draw this region into their spheres of influence.

Such battles, however, usually take place in open coun- try and leave no archaeological record.